, the study shows that for some, the commercial success of yoga has been a blessing while for traditional practitioners, the new practice patterns are a disturbing trend.
In the review, researchers from Chapman University discovered the meaning of yoga is decreasingly associated with spirituality and increasingly associated with medicine and fitness. The study argues that the shift in the meanings are due to the changes in how yoga gurus are trained, how healthcare markets have learned to appreciate the benefits of the practice, and how capitalism has commercialized the product.
Today, 20.4 million Americans practice yoga, up from 4.3 million in 2001. Participants spend $10.3 billion a year on yoga classes and products, including equipment, vacations, and media; constituting an increase of 80 percent in just four years. Yoga has become a business or corporate enterprise as the number of yoga enterprises have grown from 14,058 to 26,506 and the number of employers increasing from 58,525 to 112,890 during the 2004-2013 period.
“What we discovered was the U.S. yoga market delineated itself not only in the different types of yoga that emerged, but also in the logic behind why people do yoga,” said Assistant Professor Gokcen Coskuner-Balli, Ph.D, the co-author of the study.
“As multiple meanings and rule systems — or as what we refer to as ‘logics’ — co-exist in the marketplace, how to manage the demands from multiple constituents is a challenging task.
Numerous logics exist in many fields including healthcare, finance, and education, to name a few. In our paper, we develop a managerial framework for managing conflicting demands that might exist amongst logics and conveying brand legitimacy,” she continued.
Researchers explain that the market drivers behind yoga are spirituality, medical, and fitness. Sources trace the beginning of yoga in the United States to Swami Vivekananda’s speech representing Hinduism at the first World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893.
During the first half of the 20th century, yoga was construed mainly as a spiritual practice linked to mysticism, magic, and asceticism with religious philosophical underpinnings and an emphasis on Raja yoga (the mental science) rather than Hatha yoga (physical yoga).
In the 1960s, a greater understanding of its health benefits and the diffusion of its physical component to the U.S. mainstream led to the demystification of yoga. In the 1970s, a more scientific understanding of yoga emerged, and it became a viable player in the field of mind-body medicine, particularly as a treatment method for youth gripped by the drug culture.
The spirituality approach to yoga is structured around the goal of enlightenment, with gurus (charismatic leaders that devotees look up to in their practice) as leaders. Early gurus were mainly of Indian descent, and were later followed by their U.S. disciples. The spirituality logic is translated into practice through chanting, meditation, and reading of religious texts which is all aimed at enhancing self-awareness.
The medical approach is organized around the health benefits of yoga. The instructors are perceived as healers who help patients recover from injuries, manage pain, and prevent chronic health problems. This is rooted in scientific study.
The fitness approach emphasizes physical benefits as the goal of yoga. Students perform yoga to condition their bodies and occasionally to improve their performance in other sports. This is rooted in kinesiology.
“Over the three decade analysis of the yoga market we found that it was decreasingly associated with the logic of spirituality and increasing associated with the medical and fitness logics,” said Dr. Coskuner-Balli.
“Commercialization also emerged and yoga became increasing commoditized with the rising coverage of yoga brands, gear, clothing, and retreats.”
The medical approach was amplified as medical studies started examining and publishing the health benefits of yoga. The medical approach also got institutionalized with the founding of the U.S. government’s lead agency for scientific research on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in 1998.
Health practitioners, insurance companies, and employers began to recognize yoga as a treatment form, which extended its health benefits to a broader range of consumers. Corporations such as Nike, Apple, and HBO began offering on-site yoga classes as a regular employee benefit.
The fitness approach also gained more attention as American entrepreneurs appropriated the physical elements of yoga. Most notably, in 1989, a yoga teacher named Berly Bender Birch coined the term “Power Yoga” to refer to her Ashtanga style of yoga. Her book, Power Yoga, became the best-selling book in 1999. Her intention for the book was to communicate the physicality of her yoga and make it more appealing to Americans by demarcating it from the more spiritual based practices of the 1970s.
The YogaFit brand was created in 1994 to address the challenges of teaching yoga in health clubs. By dispensing with the Sanskrit names of postures and eliminating the om-ing and chanting, YogaFit made yoga user-friendly for those interested in a secular practice. By 2002, yoga had become the third most popular class at fitness centers, following personal and group strength training.
In the 2000s, generalist brands with the mission of increasing market share via making yoga accessible to mainstream audiences emerged in the marketplace further amplifying the fitness approach in this market.